Volume 12

2019

Contents

 

Volume 12 (2019), Issue No. 1

Preliminary evaluation of village-scale insecticide-treated durable wall lining against Anopheles gambiae s.l in Akorede, Kwara State, Nigeria
A. Obembe, K. Popoola, A. Oduola, M. Tola, A. Adeogun, T. Oyeniyi, and S. Awolola (pp. 1-9)

Sponsored Games and Allocations
E. Nocon and K. Nocum (pp. 10-22)

Estimates and Radiological Implications of Dose Distribution to Female Patients Undergoing Fluoroscopy Examination at Ondo State Trauma and Surgical Centre, South West Nigeria
I. Mark, C. Aborisade, F. Balogun, M. Orosun, S. Ogunsina, and T. Olaniyan (pp. 23-36)

Zero Ring Index of Cactus Graphs
M. Dela Rosa-Reynera and L. Aquino-Ruivivar (pp. 37-43)

Attritions on Success Probability Models
A. Wee and E. Nocon (pp. 44-55)

Generating Spanning Maximal Planar Subgraphs of Complete 4-Partite Graphs
T.J.B. Estrada and I.B. Jos (pp. 56-63)

Volume 12 (2019), Issue No. 2

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of 2H-Chromene-3- Carboxamide Derivatives: Experimental and Computational Studies
T.O. Olomola, L.O. Olasunkanmi, J.O. Fadakinni, A.J. Akinboye, T.O. Kelani, and O.O. Olasunkanmi (pp. 64-77)

Frequency of Twinning in Nigeria: A Review
K.M. Akinseye, A.T. Anifowoshe, O.A. Owolodun, O.M. Aina, and O.A. Iyiola (pp. 78-88)

Preliminary evaluation of village-scale insecticide-treated durable wall lining against Anopheles gambiae s.l in Akorede, Kwara State, Nigeria

Preliminary evaluation of village-scale insecticide-treated durable wall lining against Anopheles gambiae s.l in Akorede, Kwara State, Nigeria

pp 1-9 (Vol 12 2019)

A. Obembe 1,2,4*,
K.OK. Popoola 2,
A.O. Oduola 3,
M. Tola 4,
A.O. Adeogun 4,
T.A. Oyeniyi 4, and
S.T. Awolola 4

1 Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
2 Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
4 Molecular Entomology and Vector Control Research Laboratory, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

* Corresponding author: abiodunobembe@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Insecticide-treated durable wall lining (DL) was designed for user-independent and longer-lasting malaria vector control lacking in insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying, respectively. Field efficacy studies involving pyrethroid-treated DL in Africa have been limited to experimental huts and mobile population settings. This study reports a preliminary assessment of village-scale DL installation against An. gambiae s.l in Akorede, Kwara State, Nigeria. Two similar villages were selected as DL intervention and control sites. Subsamples of installed DL were assessed for bio-efficacy every six months while window exit trap and monthly pyrethrum spray mosquito collections were conducted in both sites. Anopheles gambiae s.l collected were identified with PCR and tested for human blood and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite using ELISA. Compared to baseline, the number of mosquitoes reduced significantly (p = 0.008) with 0% sporozoite rate in the intervention village but remained the same or increased significantly (p = 0.003) with 2.59% post-baseline sporozoite rate in the control. Bio-efficacy of DL remained 100% (mortality) with significantly (p = 0.04) increased mortality (53%) of free-flying indoor and exiting mosquitoes in the intervention village compared to control (1.8%). The results provide preliminary evidence to justify the need for randomized controlled trials in rural communities with pyrethroid-susceptible mosquitoes. Recent reports of widespread pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles gambiae s.l also call for development and assessments of non-pyrethroid insecticide incorporated control tools.

Sponsored Games and Allocations

Sponsored Games and Allocations

pp 10-22 (Vol 12 2019)

E. Nocon 1,*, and
K. Nocum 2

1 Mathematics and Statistics Department, De La Salle University, Manila
2 Mathematics Department, Batangas State University, Batangas City

* Corresponding author: ederlina.nocon@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

We focus on a game that involves two sets of players, 𝑆 and 𝑇 . The members of 𝑆 (referred to as sponsors) aim to induce cooperation among the members of 𝑇 (called team players). Each member of 𝑆 offers a reward system in the form of a characteristic function giving
the reward of each coalition (a subset of 𝑇 ). On the other hand, a member of 𝑇 may choose to join a coalition 𝑀. The aggregate actions of members of 𝑆 and 𝑇 affect the rewards not only of the members of 𝑇 but also of 𝑆 who expect payoffs as well.

We take a look at the formation of an equilibrium that is supposed to define an efficient outcome resulting from the strategies of the players from both 𝑆 and 𝑇 . We also tackle possible strategic moves of a sponsor and a team player that are motivated by their desire
to increase current payoffs. Lastly, we discuss some allocation concepts that allow team players to divide among themselves the reward that they receive from the sponsors. These concepts discussed in this paper present a new game that models a real-life situation
wherein collaborations are being motivated by outside forces. Moreover, the allocation concepts provide various practical ways of dividing rewards among the members of the coalitions.

Estimates and Radiological Implications of Dose Distribution to Female Patients Undergoing Fluoroscopy Examination at Ondo State Trauma and Surgical Centre, South West Nigeria

Estimates and Radiological Implications of Dose Distribution to Female Patients Undergoing Fluoroscopy Examination at Ondo State Trauma and Surgical Centre, South West Nigeria

pp 23-36 (Vol 12 2019)

I. T. Mark 1,*,
C. A. Aborisade
1,
F. A. Balogun
2,
M. M. Orosun
3,
S. A. Ogunsina
4, and
T. A. Olaniyan
1

1 Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3 Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Corresponding author: ibrahimboyedemark@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Fluoroscopy is one of the medical imaging modalities used by physicians to image the internal organs of the body; during this imaging process, patients may be exposed to high radiation doses. These high exposure rates can lead to radiation-induced cancer risks in patients. This study calculated the dose area product (DAP) of female patients, determined the organ and effective organ doses received by the patients, and assessed the risk of radiation-induced cancer due to radiation exposure at a government-owned hospital in Ondo State, South West Nigeria. These were with a view to provide information on dose limit for best practices in fluoroscopy examination and reduce the risk of radiation-induced cancer to these patients.

The data for this study were obtained from the Radiology Department, Trauma and Surgical Centre, Ondo State. The procedures studied in this work were predominately orthopedic procedures such as abdominopelvic surgery, acetabular reconstruction, conventional/CT myelogram, barium enema, HSG, and humeral surgery/ext. fixation.

X-ray exposure parameters were obtained for female patients that underwent fluoroscopic examination. The radiation output (beam quality) of the machine was obtained and used to calculate patient exposure. DAP was calculated for each examination. Calculation of organ and effective doses for each patient was done using the Personal Computer X-ray Monte Carlo (PCXMC) software. Estimation of the risk of radiation-induced cancer was deduced from the value of effective dose to patients using PCXMC version 2.0.

The DAP calculated in this study ranged from 275 to 22,536 mGy.cm2 with a mean of 4399 mGy.cm2. The effective dose (mSv) to patients ranged from 0.001 mSv to 3.253 mSv. The average effective dose was 0.359 mSv. The adolescents (0–15 years) had the highest mean effective dose of 0.704 mSv. Age 16–30 had the lowest mean effective dose of 0.029 mSv. The estimated risk to fatal cancer associated with exposure to radiation in this study was 235 ± 2 (per million patients).The study showed that the group with the highest risk of cancer was within the age group 0–15 years.

This study concluded that the risk of radiation-induced cancer risk at the center, which was higher than recommended limits, requires an urgent need for standardization of procedures in fluoroscopy examinations. This can be achieved by employing a comprehensive quality control and assurance program, training of technicians, and x-ray equipment calibration in all radiology departments.

Zero Ring Index of Cactus Graphs

Zero Ring Index of Cactus Graphs

pp 37-43 (Vol 12 2019)

M. Dela Rosa-Reynera 1*, and
L. Aquino-Ruivivar
2

1 Mathematics Department, Mariano Marcos State University, Quiling Sur, Batac City, Philippines
2 Mathematics and Statistics Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Corresponding Author: reyneramichelle@gmail.com; michelle_reynera@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

A new notion of graph labeling called zero ring labeling is realized by assigning distinct elements of a zero ring to the vertices of the graph such that the sum of the labels of adjacent vertices is not equal to the additive identity of the zero ring. The zero ring index of a graph G is the smallest positive integer ξ(G) such that there exists a zero ring of order ξ(G) for which G admits a zero ring labeling. Any zero ring labeling of G is optimal if it uses a zero ring consisting of ξ(G) elements. It is known that any tree of order n has a zero ring index equal to n. Considering that cactus graphs are interesting generalizations of trees, in this paper, we extend the optimal zero ring labeling scheme for trees to cactus graphs that leads us to establish that cactus graphs have also zero ring indices equal to their orders.

Attritions on Success Probability Models

Attritions on Success Probability Models

pp 44-55 (Vol 12 2019)

A. Wee and
A. Nocon
*

Mathematics and Statistics Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Corresponding Author: ederlina.nocon@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

The mathematical model called the process-based strategy (or PBS) model describes a situation wherein a particular end goal is obtained by undergoing an n-step process. As this describes some practical applications in real-life situations, it is of great interest to focus on other relevant and valid scenarios that treat the process as an iterative model. In this research study, we give an insightful extension of the results found in the paper “Success Probability of an n-Step Process with n Independent Step Probabilities.” More specifically, we extend the results of the paper by showing new applications of the PBS model pertaining to the concept of saturations as introduced in the paper. We consider various exposure scenarios and introduce the concept of prime agents acting as producers of new agents out of the success cases, which in turn also become catalysts for the succeeding cycles. In this sense, the PBS model becomes iterative. The interest is shifted to determining the number of prime agents that each cycle produces. Also discussed in this paper is the consideration of exposure scenarios where attrition is present. Lastly, the concept of critical points is also discussed, which examines conditions that determine whether the number of prime agents in the iterative PBS model will exponentially increase, remain constant, or be reduced to zero. It is perceived that the iterative PBS model can describe real-life situations such as multilevel marketing tactics and personnel training and development with the aim of using it for practical purpose of optimizing the results of such schemes.

Generating Spanning Maximal Planar Subgraphs of Complete 4-Partite Graphs

pp 56-63 (Vol 12 2019)

T.J.B. Estrada1,* and
I.B. Jos
2

1 Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University–SLUC, Agoo, La Union, Philippines
2 Mathematics and Statistics Department, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Corresponding Author: tjart_estrada@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

A spanning maximal planar subgraph (SMPS) T of a simple, finite, undirected graph G is a spanning subgraph of G that is also a maximal planar graph. In this paper, we introduce some methods of constructing complete 4-partite graphs Kw,x,y,z with SMPS. We utilize these methods to the SMPS problem for complete tripartite graphs to generate complete 4-partite graphs with SMPS and provide some relationships between the cardinalities of the two graphs.

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of 2H-Chromene-3- Carboxamide Derivatives: Experimental and Computational Studies

pp 64-77 (Vol 12 2019)

T.O. Olomola 1,*,
L.O. Olasunkanmi
1,
J.O. Fadakinni
1,
A.J. Akinboye
1,
T.O. Kelani
1,2, and
O.O. Olasunkanmi
3

1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Edo University Iyamho, Nigeria
3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Corresponding author: tolomola@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Coupling reaction between Baylis–Hillman-derived 2H-chromene-3-carboxylic acid derivatives and some amines afforded the corresponding 2H-chromene-3-carboxamides. The synthesized carboxamides and their acid precursors were screened for their in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities using nystatin and streptomycin, respectively, as standard drugs. Among the tested compounds, it has been found that compounds 3a, 3c, and 4c (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.062 mg/mL) exhibited better activities than the reference drug, streptomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.125 mg/mL) against Bacillus cereus. Compound 4a showed the best inhibitory profile against gram-negative bacterial strains, while compound 4b appeared to be the most active against fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Molecular quantum chemical calculations suggested that the activities of the compounds against gram-negative bacterial strains could have some correlations with the electron-donating abilities of the molecules, while their activities against gram-positive bacterial strains showed some correlations with the electron-accepting abilities of the molecules.

Frequency of Twinning in Nigeria: A Review

pp 78-88 (Vol 12 2019)

K.M. Akinseye 1,a,
A.T. Anifowoshe
*,2,3,a,
O.A. Owolodun
2,
O.M. Aina
2, and
O.A. Iyiola
2

1 Department of Biology, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
3 Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
*Corresponding author: anifowoshe.at@unilorin.edu.ng
aShared first author and contributed equally to the work

ABSTRACT

Increased twinning rate in developing countries, especially Nigeria, which has the highest twinning rate, exposes mothers and infants to extremely high risks. Multiple births can contribute significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, women with multiple gestations are at increased risk of preeclampsia, preterm labor, delivery of low–birth weight infants, antepartum or postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, ongenital anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation, and maternal and perinatal death as compared to women with singleton gestations. This review was undertaken with the objective of providing data on the frequency of twinning across Nigeria, which is implementing measures for safe delivery and monitoring susceptibility to disease. Literature search for incidence of twinning in Nigeria between 2008 and 2014 was carried out and twin birth per 1,000 deliveries was calculated from the frequency recorded across various states in Nigeria. We reported the frequency of twinning across Nigeria to be 6,070 out of 189,178 total births and twin birth per 1,000 deliveries to be 32.1. The maternal age range of 25–34 years showed the highest rate of twinning in this study. Our result also revealed that Nigeria had the highest rate of twinning when compared to studies from other countries except Benin Republic. This might be as a result of massive migration of Nigerians most especially the Yorubas to Benin. This study provides information on incidence/frequency of twinning across Nigeria. It also reveals how the Nigerian populations in the north, south, west, and east vary with respect to twin birth. This vital information will be germane for population genetics and anthropological studies and may be helpful in planning future health strategy, particularly in management of diseases associated with women with multiple gestations.