Volume 6 No. 1

September 2010
Feature Extraction of a Synchronized Swimmer from Underwater Videos

Feature Extraction of a Synchronized Swimmer from Underwater Videos

pp 39-46 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

Prane Mariel B. Ong 1, Elizabeth D. Mascardo 2, and Romeric F. Pobre 3

1
,3 Physics Department, College of Science, De La Salle University Manila

2 Physical Education, College of Education, De La Salle University Manila
2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004, Philippines

prane.ong@dlsu.edu.ph,


elizabeth.mascardo@dlsu.edu.ph,


romeric.pobre@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

Vision-based feature extraction of a synchronized swimmer doing figures was done in the hopes of correcting and improving a synchronized swimmer’s ability to do figures. Extracted feature through image processing techniques plays an important role in understanding the synchronized swimmer’s body kinematics and dynamics.
In gathering data, two cameras were used to video capture the swimmer’s movements. One was stationed at a calculated distance above the water, and the other camera was placed underwater directly above the other camera. In this article only the underwater feature extraction of the three figures synchronized swimming, Porpoise, Neptunus, and Ballerina, and the essential image processing techniques used for the feature extraction were covered. The results showed that empirically extracted threshold limits for the skin region produced smooth feature extracted foregrounds.

Irreversibility Lines for REBa2Cu3O7-8 Crystals

Irreversibility Lines for REBa2Cu3O7-8 Crystals

pp 11-31 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

L.S. Roleda
De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines
lydia.roleda@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

The irreversibility lines (ILs) for high quality REBa2Cu3O7-δ crystals (RE = Y and Nd) were determined from complex magnetic susceptibility measurements. The effect of twins on the crys-tals was also investigated by comparing the ILs for the YBa2Cu3O7−δ samples with and without twins. The YBa2Cu3O7−δ single crystals were grown through the flux method while the inter-growth Nd1/2Y1/2Cu3O7-δ crystals were grown using the melt-textured growth technique. Stoichi-ometric analysis through XRD and EMPA showed a single phase YBa2Cu3O7−δ crystal and a dual phase (Nd/Y)Ba2Cu3O7−δ composite crystal. The ILs showed the same power law relation, Hdc ∝ (1 − t)n for all samples investigated. The ILs were also found to be dependent on ac field ampli-tude and frequency. The ILs became steeper and shifted to higher temperatures for increasing ac field frequency. Opposite trends were observed for increasing ac field amplitude. The empirical formula Hdc = k[(1-t)/ln(f0/f)]n was obtained that accounted for the simultaneous ac field ampli-tude and frequency dependence. The characteristic frequency f0 was interpreted to be some limit-ing parameter, a finding supported by the nonlinear flux diffusion model. The exponent n was found to be dependent on both ac field and frequency. It was found that detwinning increased the Tp−Hdc dependence. In addition, there was a weak frequency dependence of the ILs for the inter-growth (Nd/Y)Ba2Cu3O7−δ in contrast to a highly responsive “clean” YBa2Cu3O7−δ single crystals. This difference strongly indicates an intrinsic characteristic of high TC superconductors.

Searching for Other Generator Subgraphs of Fans and Wheels

Searching for Other Generator Subgraphs of Fans and Wheels

pp 71-77 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

Severino V. Gervacio 1, Ma. Theresa Christine C. Valdez 2

1 Department of Mathematics, De La Salle University
Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines
svgervacio@yahoo.com

2 Mathematics Department, De La Salle University-Dasmari˜nas
Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines
matherech@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Subgraph H of a graph G is called a generator subgraph of G if the set EH(G) = {A|A ⊆ E (G), A¯ H} spans E (G) where E (G) is the edge space of G and A¯ is the subgraph of G formed by the edges in A. This work identified some generator subgraphs of two special classes of graphs namely, wheels and fans. Specifically, this paper shows that H = P3 ∪ P2 and I = Pk are both generator subgraphs of wheels and fans and L = 3P2 is a generator subgraph of wheels Wn where n ≥ 6.

Method development and validation of capillary  electrophoresis: A practical aspect

Method development and validation of capillary electrophoresis: A practical aspect

pp 47-69 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

L. Suntornsuk
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Faculty of Pharmacy
Mahidol University
447 Sri-Ayudhaya Rd., Rajathevee
Bangkok 10400, Thailand
pylll@mahidol.ac.th

ABSTRACT

The current review illustrates the method development and validation of capillary electrophoresis (CE) from experiences of the author research group. Various examples including drug monitoring, pharmaceutical, and natural product analyses are described. The author emphasizes that no specific CE condition is applicable for all problems. Analytes’ physico-chemical properties (e.g., solubility, dissociation constant, polarity, absorptivity, etc.) and their stability are major consideration. Sample matrices (e.g., biological fluid and tissues, foods, medicinal plants, etc.) can usually complicate an analysis and should be accounted for before a method is developed. Consequently, sample pretreatment/preparation procedures have to be carefully optimized as well. Successes in CE separation involve adjustments of both chemical (e.g., background electrolyte concentrations and pH, organic solvents, electro-osmotic flow modifiers, additives, etc.) and instrumental (e.g., sample loading techniques, temperature, voltage, capillary dimension, detectors, etc.) factors. Optimization of these factors can be achieved by univariate approach or statistical experimental design. The final optimum CE condition should be justified by acceptable analytical parameters (e.g., resolution, tailing factor, number of theoretical plate, total analysis time, etc.). Method validation is a follow up process, which should be carried out according to the predetermined protocol and criteria of performance. These criteria normally include specificity, linearity and range, accuracy, precision, and robustness. BGE and sample solution stability may be required in certain cases and system suitability should be carried out for method transfer.

Skewered Cyano-Bridged Cobalt Naphthalocyanine

Skewered Cyano-Bridged Cobalt Naphthalocyanine

pp 33-37 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

D.E.C. Yu 1,2

E.H. Gacho 1,3

G.C. Janairo 1

P.T. Ang 1

S.M.D. Tan 1

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Materials Science and Nanotechnology Unit, Center for Natural Science and Ecological  Research, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

Materials Development Engineering Division, Intel Technology, Cavite, Philippines

ABSTRACT

Naphthalocyanines (Nc) are ideal molecular conductors due to their flat and fully-conjugated structures. Attachment of a central metal (Co) and dicyano (CN) axial ligands to Nc produced CN-bridged cobalt naphthalocyanine, a skewered-type polymer complex. The polymeric species enabled intrachain electron transport through the CN bridge by which, coupled with the inter-chain π-π overlaps, produced a multi-dimensional electronic system. This molecular design has decreased the electrical resistivity by 5 orders relative to the monomeric Co(Nc) with di-axial CN complex.

Establishing Genetic Association Among Selected  Members of Citrus Species Through Protein Profiling  Obtained from Comparative Electrophoresis

Establishing Genetic Association Among Selected Members of Citrus Species Through Protein Profiling Obtained from Comparative Electrophoresis

pp 1-9 (Vol 6 No. 1 2010)

J.I.B. Janairo, K. F. Saulog, and N.Lazaro –Llanos 1
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
Center for Natural Sciences and Ecological Research, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

1 Corresponding author: Tel/Fax: 062-5360230; E-mail: nancy.lazaro-llanos@dlsu.edu.ph

ABSTRACT

The use of seed proteins in the evaluation of genetic diversity is cost effective and less time consuming. Water and salt-soluble proteins from the seeds of Citrus species: C reticulata, C. aurantifolia, C grandis, C. sinensis, C. limon, and C. microcarpa were extracted and variations in electrophoretic profiles were determined. Finely grounded seeds were homogenized in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH = 7.0, centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4ºC, and the supernate collected as the water-soluble fraction. The pellet was resuspended in 50mM Tris buffer, pH = 7.0 in 150 mM NaCl, homogenized, then centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4ºC, and the supernate collected as the salt-soluble fraction. Samples were analyzed using SDS PAGE. Nine protein bands were found common to all samples and six bands were used as genetic markers in the water-soluble fractions. A dendrogram was constructed for the water-soluble proteins. In the salt-soluble fraction, ten protein bands were found to be common to all samples and five bands were concluded to be genetic markers. C.reticulata and C.sinensis possessed identical water and salt soluble protein profiles and C. grandis were found to be most distinct among the samples.
Keywords: Citrus fruits, protein profiles, genetic markers, Discontinuous SDS – PAGE